Fisheries, Ecosystems, Wildlife and other Natural Resource Management

Human civilisations have evolved in close relationship with the ecosystems on which they depend. This does not mean that our strategies are always wise. In particular we typically need to adapt them as the number and scale of the human society grows. People still seem to use mental models from brick making when they discuss renewable resources: More input → more output. Bigger boats with longer nets →more fish caught. This may work at a minimal scale but at some point we need to model not only human behaviour but also ecosystem behaviour. This is a wonderful subject for the richness of both mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour but also ecological diversity and complexity. But hard. Here are some of my humble efforts – the paper I recommend first is probably the one on The importance of subpopulations for Management of cod stocks from 2007.


  • Ekbom, A., Brown, G., & Sterner, T. (2018). “Muddy waters: economic analysis of soil erosion and downstream externalities”. Ghanaian Journal of Economics,  vol. 6, no 1, pp. 74-107.
  • Ekbom, A, Y Alem and T Sterner, (2013). “Integrating soil science into agricultural production frontiers”, Environment and Development Economics, vol 18, pp. 291-308
  • E Kateregga and T Sterner, (2012). “Production Functions for Nile Perch and Tilapia Fisheries: A case study of Uganda’s Section of Lake Victoria”, Crown Journal of Agriculture, Vol 1, no.1, pp 01-12.
  • Carpenter, SR, K J. Arrow, S Barrett, R Biggs, W A. Brock5, A Crépin, G Engström, C Folke,T P. Hughes, N Kautsky, C-Z Li, G McCarney, K Meng, K-G Mäler, S Polasky, M Scheffer, J Shogren, T Sterner, J R. Vincent, B Walker, A Xepapadeas, A de Zeeuw, (2012). “General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events”, Sustainability, vol 4, doi:10.3390/su40x000x 1, ISSN 2071-1050,
  • Fisher, B., S Polasky and T Sterner, (2011). “Conservation and Human Welfare: Economic Analysis of Ecosystem Services“, Environmental and Resource Economics, vol 48, pp. 151-159 .
  • Fischer, F., Muchapondwa, E. and Sterner, T. (2011). “A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Under CAMPFIRE“, Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 48, pp. 303-319.
  • Svedäng H.,  J. Stål , T. Sterner, &  M. Cardinale, (2010). “Consequences of subpopulation structure on fisheries management: cod (Gadus morhua) in the Kattegat and Öresund (North Sea)”, Reviews in Fisheries Science,  vol. 18, no 2, pp. 139-150
  • Sterner, T. (2007). “Unobserved Diversity, Depletion and Irreversibility The importance of subpopulations for Management of cod stocks”, Ecological Economics, vol. 61, no2-3, pp. 566-574.
  • Kateregga, E. and T. Sterner (2007). “Indicators for an invasive species: Water Hyacinths in Lake Victoria”, Ecological Indicators, vol. 7, no 2, pp. 362-370.
  • Sterner, T., M. Troell, J. Vincent, S. Aniyar, S. Barrett, W. Brock, S. Carpenter, K. Chopra, P. Ehrlich, M. Hoel, S. Levin, K-G  Mäler, J. Norberg, L. Pihl, T. Söderqvist, J. Wilen and A. Xepapadeas (2006). “Quick fixes for environmental problems: part of the solution, or part of the problem?”, Environment, Vol 49, no 10, pp 19-27.
  • Sterner, T. and H. Svedäng (2005). “A Net Loss: Policy instruments for commercial fishing with focus on cod in Sweden”, Ambio, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp 84-90.
  • Arrow, K., G. Daily, P. Dasgupta, S. Levin, K-G Mäler, E. Maskin, D. Starrett, T. Sterner and T. Tietenberg (2000). “Managing Ecosystem Resources”, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 34, pp 1401-1406.
  • Sterner, T. and J. Andersson (1998). “Private Protection of the Marine Environment, Tanzania, a case study”, Ambio, Vol. XXVII Number 8, pp 768-771.